Narrowing of Sex Differences in Infant Mortality in Massachusetts.

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    • Abstract:
      OBJECTIVES:: To examine whether the improved survival of preterm infants has influenced the known male excess in infant mortality. STUDY DESIGN:: We analyzed sex-specific infant mortality using linked birth and death certificates for all 619,811 live born infants in Massachusetts between 1989 and 1995. RESULTS:: Between 1989 and 1995 the male excess in infant mortality decreased by 50%, from 1.6/1000 to 0.8/1000 live births (LB). This narrowing resulted primarily from a more rapid decline in neonatal mortality among male infants (1.5/1000 LB) than among female infants (0.9/1000 LB). The largest declines in the male excess in neonatal mortality occurred among very premature infants (GA = 30 weeks) and resulted primarily from a more rapid decrease in male deaths from respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS:: The narrowing of the sex difference in mortality between 1989 and 1995 suggests that newer treatments like antenatal steroids, and surfactants may have differentially benefited male infants.Journal of Perinatology (2004) 24, 94-99. doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7211021 Published online 5 February 2004 [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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    • Author Affiliations:
      1Department of Maternal and Child Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
      2Boston Public Health Commission, Boston, MA, USA
      3Department of Health and Social Behavior, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
      4Joint Program in Neonatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
      5Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
      6Center for Perinatal Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    • ISSN:
      0743-8346
    • Accession Number:
      10.1038/sj.jp.7211021
    • Accession Number:
      12204852
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      BHAUMIK, U. et al. Narrowing of Sex Differences in Infant Mortality in Massachusetts. Journal of Perinatology, [s. l.], v. 24, n. 2, p. 94–99, 2004. DOI 10.1038/sj.jp.7211021. Disponível em: http://widgets.ebscohost.com/prod/customlink/proxify/proxify.php?count=1&encode=0&proxy=&find_1=&replace_1=&target=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=a9h&AN=12204852&authtype=sso&custid=s5834912. Acesso em: 21 jan. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Bhaumik U, Aitken I, Kawachi I, Ringer S, Orav J, Lieberman E. Narrowing of Sex Differences in Infant Mortality in Massachusetts. Journal of Perinatology. 2004;24(2):94-99. doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7211021.
    • APA:
      Bhaumik, U., Aitken, I., Kawachi, I., Ringer, S., Orav, J., & Lieberman, E. (2004). Narrowing of Sex Differences in Infant Mortality in Massachusetts. Journal of Perinatology, 24(2), 94–99. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jp.7211021
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Bhaumik, Urmi, Iain Aitken, Ichiro Kawachi, Steve Ringer, John Orav, and Ellice Lieberman. 2004. “Narrowing of Sex Differences in Infant Mortality in Massachusetts.” Journal of Perinatology 24 (2): 94–99. doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7211021.
    • Harvard:
      Bhaumik, U. et al. (2004) ‘Narrowing of Sex Differences in Infant Mortality in Massachusetts’, Journal of Perinatology, 24(2), pp. 94–99. doi: 10.1038/sj.jp.7211021.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Bhaumik, U, Aitken, I, Kawachi, I, Ringer, S, Orav, J & Lieberman, E 2004, ‘Narrowing of Sex Differences in Infant Mortality in Massachusetts’, Journal of Perinatology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 94–99, viewed 21 January 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Bhaumik, Urmi, et al. “Narrowing of Sex Differences in Infant Mortality in Massachusetts.” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 24, no. 2, Feb. 2004, pp. 94–99. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7211021.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Bhaumik, Urmi, Iain Aitken, Ichiro Kawachi, Steve Ringer, John Orav, and Ellice Lieberman. “Narrowing of Sex Differences in Infant Mortality in Massachusetts.” Journal of Perinatology 24, no. 2 (February 2004): 94–99. doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7211021.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Bhaumik U, Aitken I, Kawachi I, Ringer S, Orav J, Lieberman E. Narrowing of Sex Differences in Infant Mortality in Massachusetts. Journal of Perinatology [Internet]. 2004 Feb [cited 2020 Jan 21];24(2):94–9. Available from: http://widgets.ebscohost.com/prod/customlink/proxify/proxify.php?count=1&encode=0&proxy=&find_1=&replace_1=&target=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=a9h&AN=12204852&authtype=sso&custid=s5834912