Early-life exposure to ambient fine particulate air pollution and infant mortality: pooled evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries.

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  • Additional Information
    • Author-Supplied Keywords:
      Ambient air pollution
      child mortality
      Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)
      fine particulate matter
      Geographic Information System (GIS)
      infant mortality
      neonatal mortality
      pregnancy outcome
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      Background: Many low- and middle-income countries are experiencing high and increasing exposure to ambient fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5). The effect of PM2.5 on infant and child mortality is usually modelled using concentration response curves extrapolated from studies conducted in settings with low ambient air pollution, which may not capture its full effect.Methods: We pool data on more than half a million births from 69 nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys that were conducted in 43 low- and middle-income countries between 1998 and 2014, and we calculate early-life exposure (exposure in utero and post partum) to ambient PM2.5 using high-resolution calibrated satellite data matched to the child's place of residence. We estimate the association between the log of early-life PM2.5 exposure, both overall and separated by type, and the odds of neonatal and infant mortality, adjusting for child-level, parent-level and household-level characteristics.Results: We find little evidence that early-life exposure to overall PM2.5 is associated with higher odds of mortality relative to low exposure to PM2.5. However, about half of PM2.5 is naturally occurring dust and sea-salt whereas half is from other sources, comprising mainly carbon-based compounds, which are mostly due to human activity. We find a very strong association between exposure to carbonaceous PM2.5 and infant mortality, particularly neonatal mortality, i.e. mortality in the first 28 days after birth. We estimate that, at the mean level of exposure in the sample to carbonaceous PM2.5-10.9 µg/m3-the odds of neonatal mortality are over 50% higher than in the absence of pollution.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the current World Health Organization guideline of limiting the overall ambient PM2.5 level to less than 10 µg/m³ should be augmented with a lower limit for harmful carbonaceous PM2.5. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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    • Author Affiliations:
      1Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
      2The Whitney and Betty MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
      3Frederick S Pardee School of Global Studies, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
      4Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    • ISSN:
      0300-5771
    • Accession Number:
      10.1093/ije/dyz090
    • Accession Number:
      138130758
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      GOYAL, N.; KARRA, M.; CANNING, D. Early-life exposure to ambient fine particulate air pollution and infant mortality: pooled evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries. International Journal of Epidemiology, [s. l.], v. 48, n. 4, p. 1125–1141, 2019. DOI 10.1093/ije/dyz090. Disponível em: http://widgets.ebscohost.com/prod/customlink/proxify/proxify.php?count=1&encode=0&proxy=&find_1=&replace_1=&target=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=a9h&AN=138130758&authtype=sso&custid=s5834912. Acesso em: 19 jan. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Goyal N, Karra M, Canning D. Early-life exposure to ambient fine particulate air pollution and infant mortality: pooled evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2019;48(4):1125-1141. doi:10.1093/ije/dyz090.
    • APA:
      Goyal, N., Karra, M., & Canning, D. (2019). Early-life exposure to ambient fine particulate air pollution and infant mortality: pooled evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries. International Journal of Epidemiology, 48(4), 1125–1141. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyz090
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Goyal, Nihit, Mahesh Karra, and David Canning. 2019. “Early-Life Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Infant Mortality: Pooled Evidence from 43 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.” International Journal of Epidemiology 48 (4): 1125–41. doi:10.1093/ije/dyz090.
    • Harvard:
      Goyal, N., Karra, M. and Canning, D. (2019) ‘Early-life exposure to ambient fine particulate air pollution and infant mortality: pooled evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries’, International Journal of Epidemiology, 48(4), pp. 1125–1141. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyz090.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Goyal, N, Karra, M & Canning, D 2019, ‘Early-life exposure to ambient fine particulate air pollution and infant mortality: pooled evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries’, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 1125–1141, viewed 19 January 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Goyal, Nihit, et al. “Early-Life Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Infant Mortality: Pooled Evidence from 43 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 48, no. 4, Aug. 2019, pp. 1125–1141. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1093/ije/dyz090.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Goyal, Nihit, Mahesh Karra, and David Canning. “Early-Life Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Infant Mortality: Pooled Evidence from 43 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.” International Journal of Epidemiology 48, no. 4 (August 2019): 1125–41. doi:10.1093/ije/dyz090.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Goyal N, Karra M, Canning D. Early-life exposure to ambient fine particulate air pollution and infant mortality: pooled evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries. International Journal of Epidemiology [Internet]. 2019 Aug [cited 2020 Jan 19];48(4):1125–41. Available from: http://widgets.ebscohost.com/prod/customlink/proxify/proxify.php?count=1&encode=0&proxy=&find_1=&replace_1=&target=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=a9h&AN=138130758&authtype=sso&custid=s5834912