Stillbirth, newborn and infant mortality: trends and inequalities in four population-based birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982-2015.

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  • Additional Information
    • Affiliation:
      Post-Graduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil
      Post-Graduate Program in Health and Behavior, Catholic University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil
      Post-Graduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, BrazilDepartment of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine FMUSP, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
    • Corporate Authors:
    • Subject Terms:
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      Background: Infant-mortality rates have been declining in many low- and middle-income countries, including Brazil. Information on causes of death and on socio-economic inequalities is scarce.Methods: Four birth cohorts were carried out in the city of Pelotas in 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015, each including all hospital births in the calendar year. Surveillance in hospitals and vital registries, accompanied by interviews with doctors and families, detected fetal and infant deaths and ascertained their causes. Late-fetal (stillbirth)-, neonatal- and post-neonatal-death rates were calculated.Results: All-cause and cause-specific death rates were reduced. During the study period, stillbirths fell by 47.8% (from 16.1 to 8.4 per 1000), neonatal mortality by 57.0% (from 20.1 to 8.7) and infant mortality by 62.0% (from 36.4 to 13.8). Perinatal causes were the leading causes of death in the four cohorts; deaths due to infectious diseases showed the largest reductions, with diarrhoea causing 25 deaths in 1982 and none in 2015. Late-fetal-, neonatal- and infant-mortality rates were higher for children born to Brown or Black women and to low-income women. Absolute socio-economic inequalities based on income-expressed in deaths per 1000 births-were reduced over time but relative inequalities-expressed as ratios of mortality rates-tended to remain stable.Conclusion: The observed improvements are likely due to progress in social determinants of health and expansion of health care. In spite of progress, current levels remain substantially greater than those observed in high-income countries, and social and ethnic inequalities persist.
    • Journal Subset:
      Biomedical; Public Health; USA
    • Instrumentation:
      Infant Characteristics Questionnaire (ICQ) (Bates et al)
      Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) (Holmes and Rahe)
    • ISSN:
      0300-5771
    • MEDLINE Info:
      PMID: NLM30883653 NLM UID: 7802871
    • Grant Information:
      //Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom
    • Publication Date:
      In Process
    • Publication Date:
      20191220
    • Accession Number:
      http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy129
    • Accession Number:
      135632635
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      MENEZES, A. M. B. et al. Stillbirth, newborn and infant mortality: trends and inequalities in four population-based birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982-2015. International Journal of Epidemiology, [s. l.], v. 48, p. i54–i62, 2019. DOI 10.1093/ije/dyy129. Disponível em: http://widgets.ebscohost.com/prod/customlink/proxify/proxify.php?count=1&encode=0&proxy=&find_1=&replace_1=&target=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=ccm&AN=135632635&authtype=sso&custid=s5834912. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Menezes AMB, Barros FC, Horta BL, et al. Stillbirth, newborn and infant mortality: trends and inequalities in four population-based birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982-2015. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2019;48:i54-i62. doi:10.1093/ije/dyy129.
    • APA:
      Menezes, A. M. B., Barros, F. C., Horta, B. L., Matijasevich, A., Bertoldi, A. D., Oliveira, P. D., & Victora, C. G. (2019). Stillbirth, newborn and infant mortality: trends and inequalities in four population-based birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982-2015. International Journal of Epidemiology, 48, i54–i62. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy129
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Menezes, Ana M B, Fernando C Barros, Bernardo L Horta, Alicia Matijasevich, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi, Paula D Oliveira, and Cesar G Victora. 2019. “Stillbirth, Newborn and Infant Mortality: Trends and Inequalities in Four Population-Based Birth Cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982-2015.” International Journal of Epidemiology 48 (April): i54–62. doi:10.1093/ije/dyy129.
    • Harvard:
      Menezes, A. M. B. et al. (2019) ‘Stillbirth, newborn and infant mortality: trends and inequalities in four population-based birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982-2015’, International Journal of Epidemiology, 48, pp. i54–i62. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyy129.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Menezes, AMB, Barros, FC, Horta, BL, Matijasevich, A, Bertoldi, AD, Oliveira, PD & Victora, CG 2019, ‘Stillbirth, newborn and infant mortality: trends and inequalities in four population-based birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982-2015’, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 48, pp. i54–i62, viewed 25 January 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Menezes, Ana M. B., et al. “Stillbirth, Newborn and Infant Mortality: Trends and Inequalities in Four Population-Based Birth Cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982-2015.” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 48, Apr. 2019, pp. i54–i62. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1093/ije/dyy129.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Menezes, Ana M B, Fernando C Barros, Bernardo L Horta, Alicia Matijasevich, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi, Paula D Oliveira, and Cesar G Victora. “Stillbirth, Newborn and Infant Mortality: Trends and Inequalities in Four Population-Based Birth Cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982-2015.” International Journal of Epidemiology 48 (April 2, 2019): i54–62. doi:10.1093/ije/dyy129.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Menezes AMB, Barros FC, Horta BL, Matijasevich A, Bertoldi AD, Oliveira PD, et al. Stillbirth, newborn and infant mortality: trends and inequalities in four population-based birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982-2015. International Journal of Epidemiology [Internet]. 2019 Apr 2 [cited 2020 Jan 25];48:i54–62. Available from: http://widgets.ebscohost.com/prod/customlink/proxify/proxify.php?count=1&encode=0&proxy=&find_1=&replace_1=&target=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=ccm&AN=135632635&authtype=sso&custid=s5834912