The article discusses socioeconomic differentials among non-white races in the United States. In 1960, the total population of conterminous United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii) was reported as 178,464,236, of which 11.2 per cent were classified as nonwhite. The nonwhite population included 18, 860,117 Negroes, who represented 10.6 per cent of the total population. Of the 20,009,280 nonwhites, 94.3 per cent were Negroes; 508,675, or 2.5 per cent, Indians; 260, 059, or 1.3 per cent, Japanese; 198,958 were Chinese; 106,426, or 0.5 per cent, Filipinos; and 75,045, or 0.4 per cent, "all other." Particular notice should be taken of the sizeable gain in the Indian population between 1950 (343,410) and 1960 (508,675), in striking contrast to the relatively meager growth of the 1930's and 1940's. The increment during the past ten-year period reflects, of course, an increase in fertility as well as a sharp decline in infant mortality. Another factor has been the influence of the self-enumeration procedure used by the U.S. Census Bureau in 1960 as well as the reclassification of many persons of mixed white, Negro, and Indian ancestry from "other races" to "Indian."