Community Mortality Due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Argentina: Population-based Surveillance Study.

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      Background Many deaths in infants from low-middle income countries (LMICs) occur at home or upon arrival to health facilities. Although acute lower respiratory tract illness plays an important role in community mortality, the accuracy of mortality rates due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains unknown. Methods An active surveillance study among children aged under 5 years old (U5) was performed in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between January and December 2019, to define the burden and role of RSV in childhood community mortality. Results A total of 63 families of children U5 participated in the study. Based on a combined approach of tissue sampling, verbal autopsies, and expert's analysis, RSV infection was found in the causal chain of 11 from 12 cases with positive molecular biology results in respiratory samples. The estimated mortality rate due to RSV among infants was 0.27 deaths/1000 live births. The mean age of RSV-related household deaths was 2.8 months of age (standard deviation [SD] 1.7), and 8/12 were male infants (66.7%). Dying at home from RSV was associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae and/or Moraxella catarrhalis lung coinfection (75%), living in slums and settlement (odds ratio [OR], 17.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–219.2), and other underlying comorbidities (OR, 14.87; 95% CI, 1.3–164.6). Conclusions Infant community mortality rates due to RSV are higher than those reported in industrialized countries and similar to those reported in hospital-based studies in the same catchment population. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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