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      The article focuses on the recent changes in fertility among African Americans. Crude birth rates for the African American population of the United States indicate that fertility declined while African Americans remained in the South and them climbed in the last twenty-five years as African Americans became urbanized. African-Americans migrated to cities at the very time when diseases were being controlled and when public health and welfare facilities were being expanded to serve all residents. This has contributed to higher African American fertility rates. The article indicates the birth rate fell slowly during the early twenties and then fell precipitously during the latter half of that decade and during the Depression. When the crude birth rate sank to a minimum, its value was perhaps half what it was 50 years earlier. So substantial was this decline in fertility that during the early thirties the net reproduction rate for African Americans hovered near unity. The observed pattern of crude birth rates is difficult to understand or explain, particularly the persistence and magnitude of the postwar rise in fertility.