Highlighting the latest research on Actualistic Taphonomy (AT), this book presents the outcomes of a meeting that took place in Montevideo, Uruguay, in October 2017. Its respective chapters offer valuable insights into South American archaeology, invertebrate and vertebrate fauna, and flora. In recent years, there has been a surge of new research on AT, as evidenced by numerous papers, talks, theses, etc. However, there are still very few AT books or even dedicated journal articles. Reflecting the discipline's newfound maturity, this book, written by South American authors, offers a unique resource for academics and students of Paleontology, Geology, and Biology around the world.