A comparison of foetal and infant mortality in the United States and Canada.

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  • Author(s): Ananth CV;Ananth CV; Liu S; Joseph KS; Kramer MS
  • Source:
    International Journal Of Epidemiology [Int J Epidemiol] 2009 Apr; Vol. 38 (2), pp. 480-9. Date of Electronic Publication: 2008 Sep 20.
  • Publication Type:
    Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Language:
    English
  • Additional Information
    • Corporate Authors:
    • Source:
      Publisher: Oxford University Press Country of Publication: England NLM ID: 7802871 Publication Model: Print-Electronic Cited Medium: Internet ISSN: 1464-3685 (Electronic) Linking ISSN: 03005771 NLM ISO Abbreviation: Int J Epidemiol Subsets: MEDLINE
    • Publication Information:
      Original Publication: [London] Oxford University Press.
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      Background: Infant mortality rates are higher in the United States than in Canada. We explored this difference by comparing gestational age distributions and gestational age-specific mortality rates in the two countries.
      Methods: Stillbirth and infant mortality rates were compared for singleton births at >or=22 weeks and newborns weighing>or=500 g in the United States and Canada (1996-2000). Since menstrual-based gestational age appears to misclassify gestational duration and overestimate both preterm and postterm birth rates, and because a clinical estimate of gestation is the only available measure of gestational age in Canada, all comparisons were based on the clinical estimate. Data for California were excluded because they lacked a clinical estimate. Gestational age-specific comparisons were based on the foetuses-at-risk approach.
      Results: The overall stillbirth rate in the United States (37.9 per 10,000 births) was similar to that in Canada (38.2 per 10,000 births), while the overall infant mortality rate was 23% (95% CI 19-26%) higher (50.8 vs 41.4 per 10,000 births, respectively). The gestational age distribution was left-shifted in the United States relative to Canada; consequently, preterm birth rates were 8.0 and 6.0%, respectively. Stillbirth and early neonatal mortality rates in the United States were lower at term gestation only. However, gestational age-specific late neonatal, post-neonatal and infant mortality rates were higher in the United States at virtually every gestation. The overall stillbirth rates (per 10,000 foetuses at risk) among Blacks and Whites in the United States, and in Canada were 59.6, 35.0 and 38.3, respectively, whereas the corresponding infant mortality rates were 85.6, 49.7 and 42.2, respectively.
      Conclusions: Differences in gestational age distributions and in gestational age-specific stillbirth and infant mortality in the United States and Canada underscore substantial differences in healthcare services, population health status and health policy between the two neighbouring countries.
    • Publication Date:
      Date Created: 20080923 Date Completed: 20090507 Latest Revision: 20090402
    • Publication Date:
      20181210
    • Accession Number:
      10.1093/ije/dyn194
    • Accession Number:
      18806278
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      ANANTH, C. V. et al. A comparison of foetal and infant mortality in the United States and Canada. International Journal Of Epidemiology, [s. l.], v. 38, n. 2, p. 480–489, 2009. DOI 10.1093/ije/dyn194. Disponível em: http://widgets.ebscohost.com/prod/customlink/proxify/proxify.php?count=1&encode=0&proxy=&find_1=&replace_1=&target=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=mdc&AN=18806278&authtype=sso&custid=s5834912. Acesso em: 26 jan. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Ananth CV, Liu S, Joseph KS, Kramer MS. A comparison of foetal and infant mortality in the United States and Canada. International Journal Of Epidemiology. 2009;38(2):480-489. doi:10.1093/ije/dyn194.
    • APA:
      Ananth, C. V., Liu, S., Joseph, K. S., & Kramer, M. S. (2009). A comparison of foetal and infant mortality in the United States and Canada. International Journal Of Epidemiology, 38(2), 480–489. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyn194
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Ananth, Cande V, Shiliang Liu, K S Joseph, and Michael S Kramer. 2009. “A Comparison of Foetal and Infant Mortality in the United States and Canada.” International Journal Of Epidemiology 38 (2): 480–89. doi:10.1093/ije/dyn194.
    • Harvard:
      Ananth, C. V. et al. (2009) ‘A comparison of foetal and infant mortality in the United States and Canada’, International Journal Of Epidemiology, 38(2), pp. 480–489. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyn194.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Ananth, CV, Liu, S, Joseph, KS & Kramer, MS 2009, ‘A comparison of foetal and infant mortality in the United States and Canada’, International Journal Of Epidemiology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 480–489, viewed 26 January 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Ananth, Cande V., et al. “A Comparison of Foetal and Infant Mortality in the United States and Canada.” International Journal Of Epidemiology, vol. 38, no. 2, Apr. 2009, pp. 480–489. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1093/ije/dyn194.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Ananth, Cande V, Shiliang Liu, K S Joseph, and Michael S Kramer. “A Comparison of Foetal and Infant Mortality in the United States and Canada.” International Journal Of Epidemiology 38, no. 2 (April 2009): 480–89. doi:10.1093/ije/dyn194.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Ananth CV, Liu S, Joseph KS, Kramer MS. A comparison of foetal and infant mortality in the United States and Canada. International Journal Of Epidemiology [Internet]. 2009 Apr [cited 2020 Jan 26];38(2):480–9. Available from: http://widgets.ebscohost.com/prod/customlink/proxify/proxify.php?count=1&encode=0&proxy=&find_1=&replace_1=&target=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=mdc&AN=18806278&authtype=sso&custid=s5834912